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  1. I suggest that all Christian congregations should embrace the basic convictions of multi-culturalism. In the development of actual ministry philosophy, strategy and practices, some churches in multi-ethnic contexts may feel that homogeneous, ethnic, first-language congregations are the most effective for their target audience. While this is a valid strategy, ministry leaders must be aware of the sociological realities of second-generation integration with the host culture which often leads to a movement away from ethnic churches. Such ethnic churches must maintain a broader understanding of multi-cultural issues and build relationships with multi-cultural congregations in which their integrating second-generation can develop an adjusted faith identity that is not bound to a particular culture.
  2. Edgar Schein was professor of management studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) at the time he wrote Organizational Culture and Leadership in 1985. Schein has written on organizational psychology and dynamics as well as management theory and leadership practices dating back to the 1960s.
  3. In the fields of psychology and sociology, the study of organizational culture often uses culture-change or culture-transmission as a verb, rather than using the adverb "cultural" to define the verb "change."
  4. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard, developer of the "multiple intelligences" model of education, gave his attention to leadership studies in Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership (1995a).
  5. In his book, Natural Church Development (1996), German church consultant Christian Schwarz builds upon quantitative research conducted in more than 1000 churches in 32 different countries around the world. His research enabled the development of an index of 8 qualities essential to healthy church life.
  6. Hauerwas and Willimon, both professors at Duke University Divinity School in North Carolina, function within the mainstream Methodist tradition.
  7. Charles Foster is professor of religion and education at the Candler School of Theology of Emory University, Atlanta Georgia.
  8. David Augsberger, author of Pastoral Counseling Across Cultures (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986), refers to this process as "interpathy" (in Foster 1997, 122).
  9. Eric Law, a Chinese-American Episcopal priest, is a professional consultant in the area of multi-cultural leadership and organizational development, presently based in Vancouver, BC.